Augustus Octavian was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was adopted by his great-uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BC, sometime between 44 BC and 27 BC was officially renamed Gaius Julius Caesar. After 27 BC, he was named Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus. Because of the various names he bore, it is common to call him Octavius when referring to events between 63 and 44 B.C., Octavian (or Octavianus) when referring to events between 44 and 27 B.C., and Augustus when referring to events after 27 B.C. After the assassination of Julius Caesar, Octavian or Augustus, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate in order to defeat and punish the assassins of Caesar. Which they did with their victory at Philippi, the Triumvirate then divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvirate was eventually dissolved due to the competing ambitions of its members. Lepidus was sent into exile and was stripped of his positions. Following he and Cleopatra’s defeat at the Battle of Actium by Octavian in 31 BC Antony committed suicide. Thus leaving Augustus or Octavian as the first and possibly greatest Roman emperor, he founded the Roman Empire and as emperor, Augustus reformed the coinage and the military, and embarked on a huge building program all across the empire. After a long reign of 41 years, from 27 B.C. to 14 A.D., he died at the age of 75 or 76 in Nola, Italy of natural caused or as some think, by poisoning from his third wife Livia, whose son Tiberius (adopted by Augustus) then succeeded Augustus.